Cyperus esculentus is widespread in tropical and temperate zones and is also present in cooler regions. It is used as a crop plant, but it also occurs in the wild and as a weed. As a consequence of its ecological plasticity, C. esc. has remarkable variability, with several morphotypes. Four wild-type varieties are presently recognized, in addition to the cultivated form. This study investigates the phylogenetic position and biogeography of C. esc. with the objective of contributing new data to increase the understanding of its evolutionary history. Genealogical relationships among genotypes were inferred by using plastid DNA haplotype and nuclear ribosomal (nr) DNA ribotype sequences for 70 specimens either collected in the field or obtained from herbaria. Statistical dispersal–vicariance and Bayesian binary method analyses were used to reconstruct the possible ancestral ranges of C. esc. In order to determine the age of C. esc., a time-measured phylogenetic analysis was performed. Considerable variation between the chosen nuclear and plastid markers was detected (27 ribotypes vs. six haplotypes). No geographical structure was displayed among the haplotypes, but information on the dispersal pattern may be deduced. Two types of ribotypes were detected in nrDNA, with an evident geographical segregation into an Old World group and a polymorphic New World group. Both S-DIVA and BBM analyses suggested a biogeographical history in which dispersal from the African region has been crucial in shaping the current distribution pattern of C. esculentus. The most recent common ancestor between C. esc. races has an age of 5.1 million years (95 % highest posterior density 2.5–10.2). The results have various taxonomic and phylogenetic implications, including a hypothesis on the origin and phylogeography of this species, which probably originated in the late Cenozoic in Africa, and reached the Americas repeatedly, independently of Columbian exchanges.

A molecular survey concerning the origin of Cyperus esculentus (Cyperaceae, Poales): two sides of the same coin (weed vs. crop)

DE CASTRO, OLGA;GARGIULO, ROBERTA;Emanuele Del Guacchio;CAPUTO, PAOLO;
2015

Abstract

Cyperus esculentus is widespread in tropical and temperate zones and is also present in cooler regions. It is used as a crop plant, but it also occurs in the wild and as a weed. As a consequence of its ecological plasticity, C. esc. has remarkable variability, with several morphotypes. Four wild-type varieties are presently recognized, in addition to the cultivated form. This study investigates the phylogenetic position and biogeography of C. esc. with the objective of contributing new data to increase the understanding of its evolutionary history. Genealogical relationships among genotypes were inferred by using plastid DNA haplotype and nuclear ribosomal (nr) DNA ribotype sequences for 70 specimens either collected in the field or obtained from herbaria. Statistical dispersal–vicariance and Bayesian binary method analyses were used to reconstruct the possible ancestral ranges of C. esc. In order to determine the age of C. esc., a time-measured phylogenetic analysis was performed. Considerable variation between the chosen nuclear and plastid markers was detected (27 ribotypes vs. six haplotypes). No geographical structure was displayed among the haplotypes, but information on the dispersal pattern may be deduced. Two types of ribotypes were detected in nrDNA, with an evident geographical segregation into an Old World group and a polymorphic New World group. Both S-DIVA and BBM analyses suggested a biogeographical history in which dispersal from the African region has been crucial in shaping the current distribution pattern of C. esculentus. The most recent common ancestor between C. esc. races has an age of 5.1 million years (95 % highest posterior density 2.5–10.2). The results have various taxonomic and phylogenetic implications, including a hypothesis on the origin and phylogeography of this species, which probably originated in the late Cenozoic in Africa, and reached the Americas repeatedly, independently of Columbian exchanges.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/601176
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