Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations of the AutoImmune REgulator gene. The clinical spectrum of the disease encompasses several autoimmune endocrine and non-endocrine manifestations, which may lead to acute metabolic alterations and eventually life-threatening events. The clinical diagnosis is defined by the presence of at least two components of the classic triad including chronic mucocoutaneous candidiasis (CMC), chronic hypoparathyroidism (CH), Addison's disease (AD). Other common features of the disease are hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, alopecia, vitiligo, autoimmune hepatitis, Type 1 diabetes, gastrointestinal dysfunction. APECED usually begins in childhood. CMC is the first manifestation to appear, usually before the age of 5 yr, followed by CH and then by AD. The clinical phenotype may evolve over several years and many components of the disease may not appear until the 4th or 5th decade of life. The phenotypical expression of the syndrome shows a wide variability even between siblings with the same genotype. In view of this heterogeneity, an early diagnosis of APECED can be very challenging often leading to a considerable diagnostic delay. Therefore, clinicians should be aware that the presence of even a minor component of APECED in children should prompt a careful investigation for other signs and symptoms of the disease, thus allowing an early diagnosis and prevention of severe and life-threatening events. Aim of this review is to focus on clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of the major components of APECED in children particularly focusing on endocrine features of the disease.

Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy from the pediatric perspective / Capalbo, Donatella; Improda, Nicola; Esposito, A; DE MARTINO, Lucia; Barbieri, Flavia; Betterle, C; Pignata, Claudio; Salerno, Mariacarolina. - In: JOURNAL OF ENDOCRINOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. - ISSN 0391-4097. - 36:10(2013), pp. 903-912. [10.3275/8999]

Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy from the pediatric perspective.

CAPALBO, DONATELLA;IMPRODA, NICOLA;DE MARTINO, LUCIA;BARBIERI, FLAVIA;PIGNATA, CLAUDIO;SALERNO, MARIACAROLINA
2013

Abstract

Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations of the AutoImmune REgulator gene. The clinical spectrum of the disease encompasses several autoimmune endocrine and non-endocrine manifestations, which may lead to acute metabolic alterations and eventually life-threatening events. The clinical diagnosis is defined by the presence of at least two components of the classic triad including chronic mucocoutaneous candidiasis (CMC), chronic hypoparathyroidism (CH), Addison's disease (AD). Other common features of the disease are hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, alopecia, vitiligo, autoimmune hepatitis, Type 1 diabetes, gastrointestinal dysfunction. APECED usually begins in childhood. CMC is the first manifestation to appear, usually before the age of 5 yr, followed by CH and then by AD. The clinical phenotype may evolve over several years and many components of the disease may not appear until the 4th or 5th decade of life. The phenotypical expression of the syndrome shows a wide variability even between siblings with the same genotype. In view of this heterogeneity, an early diagnosis of APECED can be very challenging often leading to a considerable diagnostic delay. Therefore, clinicians should be aware that the presence of even a minor component of APECED in children should prompt a careful investigation for other signs and symptoms of the disease, thus allowing an early diagnosis and prevention of severe and life-threatening events. Aim of this review is to focus on clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of the major components of APECED in children particularly focusing on endocrine features of the disease.
2013
Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy from the pediatric perspective / Capalbo, Donatella; Improda, Nicola; Esposito, A; DE MARTINO, Lucia; Barbieri, Flavia; Betterle, C; Pignata, Claudio; Salerno, Mariacarolina. - In: JOURNAL OF ENDOCRINOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. - ISSN 0391-4097. - 36:10(2013), pp. 903-912. [10.3275/8999]
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/570306
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 27
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 17
social impact