The calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) participates with Ras to Raf-1 activation, and it is necessary for activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) by different factors in epithelial and mesenchimal cells. Raf-1 activation is a complex multistep process, and its maximal activation is achieved by phosphorylation at Y341 by Src and at S338 by other kinase/s. Although early data proposed the involvement of p21-activated kinase 3 (Pak3), the kinase phosphorylating S338 remains to be definitively identified. In this study, we verified the hypothesis that CaMKII phosphorylates Raf-1 at Ser338. To do so, we determined the role of CaMKII in Raf-1 and ERK activation by oncogenic Ras and other factors. Serum, fibronectin, Src(Y527) and Ras(V12) activated CaMKII and ERK, at different extents. The inhibition of CaMKII attenuated Raf-1 and ERK activation by all these factors. CaMKII was also necessary for the phosphorylation of Raf-1 at S338 by serum, fibronectin and Ras. Conversely, inhibition of Pak3 activation by blocking phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase was ineffective. The direct phosphorylation of S338 Raf-1 by CaMKII was demonstrated in vitro by interaction of purified kinases. These results demonstrate that Ras activates CaMKII, which, in turn, phosphorylates Raf-1 at S338 and participates in ERK activation upon different stimuli.

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) phosphorylates Raf-1 at serine 338 and mediates Ras-stimulated Raf-1 activation

SALZANO, MARCELLA;RUSSO, ELEONORA;Bifulco M.;POSTIGLIONE, LOREDANA;
2012

Abstract

The calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) participates with Ras to Raf-1 activation, and it is necessary for activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) by different factors in epithelial and mesenchimal cells. Raf-1 activation is a complex multistep process, and its maximal activation is achieved by phosphorylation at Y341 by Src and at S338 by other kinase/s. Although early data proposed the involvement of p21-activated kinase 3 (Pak3), the kinase phosphorylating S338 remains to be definitively identified. In this study, we verified the hypothesis that CaMKII phosphorylates Raf-1 at Ser338. To do so, we determined the role of CaMKII in Raf-1 and ERK activation by oncogenic Ras and other factors. Serum, fibronectin, Src(Y527) and Ras(V12) activated CaMKII and ERK, at different extents. The inhibition of CaMKII attenuated Raf-1 and ERK activation by all these factors. CaMKII was also necessary for the phosphorylation of Raf-1 at S338 by serum, fibronectin and Ras. Conversely, inhibition of Pak3 activation by blocking phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase was ineffective. The direct phosphorylation of S338 Raf-1 by CaMKII was demonstrated in vitro by interaction of purified kinases. These results demonstrate that Ras activates CaMKII, which, in turn, phosphorylates Raf-1 at S338 and participates in ERK activation upon different stimuli.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/507162
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