Cushing's syndrome is commonly complicated with an impairment of glucose metabolism, which is often clinically manifested as diabetes mellitus. The development of diabetes mellitus in Cushing's syndrome is both a direct and indirect consequence of glucocorticoid excess. Indeed, glucocorticoid excess induces a stimulation of gluconeogenesis in the liver as well as an inhibition of insulin sensitivity both in the liver and in the skeletal muscles, which represent the most important sites responsible for glucose metabolism. In particular, glucocorticoid excess stimulates the expression of several key enzymes involved in the process of gluconeogenesis, with a consequent increase of glucose production, and induces an impairment of insulin sensitivity either directly by interfering with the insulin receptor signaling pathway or indirectly, through the stimulation of lipolysis and proteolysis and the consequent increase of fatty acids and amino acids, which contribute to the development of insulin resistance. Moreover, the peculiar distribution of adipose tissue throughout the body, with the predominance of visceral adipose tissue, significantly contributes to the worsening of insulin resistance and the development of a metabolic syndrome, which participates in the occurrence and maintenance of the impairment of glucose tolerance. Finally, glucocorticoid excess is able to impair insulin secretion as well as act at the level of the pancreatic beta cells, where it inhibits different steps of the insulin secretion process. This phenomenon is probably responsible for the passage from an impairment of glucose tolerance to an overt diabetes mellitus in susceptible patients with Cushing's syndrome.

Pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus in Cushing's syndrome.

PIVONELLO, ROSARIO;DE LEO, MONICA;VITALE, PASQUALE;COZZOLINO, ALESSIA;Simeoli C.;DE MARTINO, MARIA CRISTINA;LOMBARDI, GAETANO;COLAO, ANNAMARIA
2010

Abstract

Cushing's syndrome is commonly complicated with an impairment of glucose metabolism, which is often clinically manifested as diabetes mellitus. The development of diabetes mellitus in Cushing's syndrome is both a direct and indirect consequence of glucocorticoid excess. Indeed, glucocorticoid excess induces a stimulation of gluconeogenesis in the liver as well as an inhibition of insulin sensitivity both in the liver and in the skeletal muscles, which represent the most important sites responsible for glucose metabolism. In particular, glucocorticoid excess stimulates the expression of several key enzymes involved in the process of gluconeogenesis, with a consequent increase of glucose production, and induces an impairment of insulin sensitivity either directly by interfering with the insulin receptor signaling pathway or indirectly, through the stimulation of lipolysis and proteolysis and the consequent increase of fatty acids and amino acids, which contribute to the development of insulin resistance. Moreover, the peculiar distribution of adipose tissue throughout the body, with the predominance of visceral adipose tissue, significantly contributes to the worsening of insulin resistance and the development of a metabolic syndrome, which participates in the occurrence and maintenance of the impairment of glucose tolerance. Finally, glucocorticoid excess is able to impair insulin secretion as well as act at the level of the pancreatic beta cells, where it inhibits different steps of the insulin secretion process. This phenomenon is probably responsible for the passage from an impairment of glucose tolerance to an overt diabetes mellitus in susceptible patients with Cushing's syndrome.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11588/378161
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