This paper presents an innovative application of the Particle Filtering techniques to the Vertical Gyro problem, which is a highly nonlinear and non Gaussian recursive state estimation problem. The classical approach to recursive state estimation problem of nonlinear and/or non Gaussian systems is based on the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF), which is a heuristic method based on the linearization of the state dynamics and observations near a nominal path. Depending on the amount of nonlinearities and non Gaussian noise, the EKF often provides a solution far from acceptable. 12 The Vertical Gyro is an instrument adopted to measure the tilt angles (pitch and roll) of an aircraft with respect to local vertical. It is composed by three orthogonal gyros that are used as process sensors and by three orthogonal accelerometers that are used as aiding sensors. The output of accelerometers is filtered using a proper low-pass filter to allow for the estimation of the local direction of the gravity vector that is assumed the same of the local vertical. In the application to the Vertical Gyro, Gordon’s version of the Particle Filter was used. The relevant dynamical model is based on non-linear attitude rate equation using Euler Angles rather than quaternions. The algorithm, developed in Matlab environment, was first calibrated and tested in simulations, obtaining very appealing performances. Subsequently, it was implemented using real data, acquired by means of an inertial unit produced by CrossbowTM (model DMU-HDXTM), and its results were compared to those provided by the proprietary EKF embedded in the unit. First of all, stationary tests were performed. Sensor data were input to the Particle Filter that outputs the tilt angles (roll and pitch) with respect to the local geodetic reference. The results were compared to those provided by the internal EKF. Subsequently, the same operation was done using data that were acquired with moving platform. The accuracy of the filter was tested also for degraded operating conditions (lower data rates) and large initial errors. The main advantage of the methodology is that, while the internal filter works with 7 states (quaternions, biases and temperature), the Particle Filter ensures the convergence with 3 states, and provides acceptable performances with 1000 particles only, appearing promising for a real time application.

A vertical gyro model based on particle filters

PIRO, CATERINA;ACCARDO, DOMENICO
2007

Abstract

This paper presents an innovative application of the Particle Filtering techniques to the Vertical Gyro problem, which is a highly nonlinear and non Gaussian recursive state estimation problem. The classical approach to recursive state estimation problem of nonlinear and/or non Gaussian systems is based on the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF), which is a heuristic method based on the linearization of the state dynamics and observations near a nominal path. Depending on the amount of nonlinearities and non Gaussian noise, the EKF often provides a solution far from acceptable. 12 The Vertical Gyro is an instrument adopted to measure the tilt angles (pitch and roll) of an aircraft with respect to local vertical. It is composed by three orthogonal gyros that are used as process sensors and by three orthogonal accelerometers that are used as aiding sensors. The output of accelerometers is filtered using a proper low-pass filter to allow for the estimation of the local direction of the gravity vector that is assumed the same of the local vertical. In the application to the Vertical Gyro, Gordon’s version of the Particle Filter was used. The relevant dynamical model is based on non-linear attitude rate equation using Euler Angles rather than quaternions. The algorithm, developed in Matlab environment, was first calibrated and tested in simulations, obtaining very appealing performances. Subsequently, it was implemented using real data, acquired by means of an inertial unit produced by CrossbowTM (model DMU-HDXTM), and its results were compared to those provided by the proprietary EKF embedded in the unit. First of all, stationary tests were performed. Sensor data were input to the Particle Filter that outputs the tilt angles (roll and pitch) with respect to the local geodetic reference. The results were compared to those provided by the internal EKF. Subsequently, the same operation was done using data that were acquired with moving platform. The accuracy of the filter was tested also for degraded operating conditions (lower data rates) and large initial errors. The main advantage of the methodology is that, while the internal filter works with 7 states (quaternions, biases and temperature), the Particle Filter ensures the convergence with 3 states, and provides acceptable performances with 1000 particles only, appearing promising for a real time application.
9781424405251
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11588/305156
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