Olive mill waste water (OMW), a by-product of the olive mill industry, is produced in large amounts in Mediterranean countries. Olive mill waste water contains a high organic load, substantial amounts of plant nutrients but also several compounds with recognized toxicity towards living organisms. Moreover, OMW may represent a low cost source of water. Thus, the use of OMW for soil fertigation is a valuable option for its disposal, provided that its impact on soil chemical and biochemical properties is established. Investigations were performed on the short-term influence of OMW on several chemical and biochemical properties of a soil from a continental semi-arid Mediterranean region (Morocco). The soil was amended with 0, 18 and 36 ml 100 g-1 soil of OMW (corresponding to a field rate of 0, 40 and 80 m3 ha-1, respectively) and changes in various functionally related properties such as microbial biomass, basal respiration, extractable C and N, and soil hydrolases and oxido-reductases activities were measured over time. The variations of the main physical and chemical properties as well as the residual phytotoxicity of OMW amended and non-amended soils as assessed by tomato seed germination tests were also monitored. Temporary and permanent changes in several chemical and biochemical soil properties occurred following OMW application, thus being these properties varied in sensitivity to the applied disturbance. A sudden increase of total organic C, extractable N and C, available P and extractable Mn and Fe contents were measured. Simultaneously, a rapid increase of soil respiration, dehydrogenase and urease activities and microbial biomass (at 14 day incubation) of OMW amended soils occurred. In contrast, the activities of phosphatase, b-glucosidase, nitrate reductase and diphenol oxidase decreased markedly. The soil became highly phytotoxic after OMW addition (large decline of soil germination capability), mainly at 80 m3 ha-1 OMW. After 42 days’ incubation, however, a complete recovery of the soil germination capability and a residual phytotoxicity of about 30% were observed with 40 and 80 m3 ha-1 OMW, respectively. These findings indicate that the impact of OMW on soil properties was the result of opposite effects, depending on the relative amounts of beneficial and toxic organic and inorganic compounds present. The toxic compounds contained in OMW most likely counteracted the beneficial effect of organic substrates provided, which promoted the growth and activity of indigenous microorganisms.

Short-term effects of olive mill waste water (OMW) on chemical and biochemical properties of a semiarid Mediterranean soil / Piotrowska, A.; Iamarino, G.; Rao, MARIA ANTONIETTA; Gianfreda, Liliana. - In: SOIL BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY. - ISSN 0038-0717. - ELETTRONICO. - 38:(2006), pp. 600-610.

Short-term effects of olive mill waste water (OMW) on chemical and biochemical properties of a semiarid Mediterranean soil

RAO, MARIA ANTONIETTA;GIANFREDA, LILIANA
2006

Abstract

Olive mill waste water (OMW), a by-product of the olive mill industry, is produced in large amounts in Mediterranean countries. Olive mill waste water contains a high organic load, substantial amounts of plant nutrients but also several compounds with recognized toxicity towards living organisms. Moreover, OMW may represent a low cost source of water. Thus, the use of OMW for soil fertigation is a valuable option for its disposal, provided that its impact on soil chemical and biochemical properties is established. Investigations were performed on the short-term influence of OMW on several chemical and biochemical properties of a soil from a continental semi-arid Mediterranean region (Morocco). The soil was amended with 0, 18 and 36 ml 100 g-1 soil of OMW (corresponding to a field rate of 0, 40 and 80 m3 ha-1, respectively) and changes in various functionally related properties such as microbial biomass, basal respiration, extractable C and N, and soil hydrolases and oxido-reductases activities were measured over time. The variations of the main physical and chemical properties as well as the residual phytotoxicity of OMW amended and non-amended soils as assessed by tomato seed germination tests were also monitored. Temporary and permanent changes in several chemical and biochemical soil properties occurred following OMW application, thus being these properties varied in sensitivity to the applied disturbance. A sudden increase of total organic C, extractable N and C, available P and extractable Mn and Fe contents were measured. Simultaneously, a rapid increase of soil respiration, dehydrogenase and urease activities and microbial biomass (at 14 day incubation) of OMW amended soils occurred. In contrast, the activities of phosphatase, b-glucosidase, nitrate reductase and diphenol oxidase decreased markedly. The soil became highly phytotoxic after OMW addition (large decline of soil germination capability), mainly at 80 m3 ha-1 OMW. After 42 days’ incubation, however, a complete recovery of the soil germination capability and a residual phytotoxicity of about 30% were observed with 40 and 80 m3 ha-1 OMW, respectively. These findings indicate that the impact of OMW on soil properties was the result of opposite effects, depending on the relative amounts of beneficial and toxic organic and inorganic compounds present. The toxic compounds contained in OMW most likely counteracted the beneficial effect of organic substrates provided, which promoted the growth and activity of indigenous microorganisms.
2006
Short-term effects of olive mill waste water (OMW) on chemical and biochemical properties of a semiarid Mediterranean soil / Piotrowska, A.; Iamarino, G.; Rao, MARIA ANTONIETTA; Gianfreda, Liliana. - In: SOIL BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY. - ISSN 0038-0717. - ELETTRONICO. - 38:(2006), pp. 600-610.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/109488
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