We report here the synthesis and the conformation analysis by 1H NMR spectroscopy and computer simulations of six potent sweet molecules, N-[3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-3-methylbutyl]-alpha-L-aspartyl-S-tert-butyl-L-cysteine 1-methylester (1; 70 000 times more potent than sucrose), N-[3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-3-methylbutyl]-alpha-L-aspartyl-beta-cyclohexyl-L-alanine 1-methylester (2; 50 000 times more potent than sucrose), N-[3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-3-methylbutyl]-alpha-L-aspartyl-4-cyan-L-phenylalanine 1-methylester (3; 2 000 times more potent than sucrose), N-[3,3-dimethylbutyl]-alpha-L-aspartyl-(1R,2S,4S)-1-methyl-2-hydroxy-4-phenylhexylamide (4; 5500 times more potent than sucrose), N-[3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)propyl]-alpha-L-aspartyl-(1R,2S,4S)-1-methyl-2-hydroxy-4-phenylhexylamide (5; 15 000 times more potent than sucrose), and N-[3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-3-methylbutyl]-alpha-L-aspartyl-(1R,2S,4S)-1-methyl-2-hydroxy-4-phenylhexylamide (6; 15 000 times more potent than sucrose). The "L-shaped" structure, which we believe to be responsible for sweet taste, is accessible to all six molecules in solution. This structure is characterized by a zwitterionic ring formed by the AH- and B-containing moieties located along the +y axis and by the hydrophobic group X pointing into the +x axis. Extended conformations with the AH- and B-containing moieties along the +y axis and the hydrophobic group X pointing into the -y axis were observed for all six sweeteners. For compound 5, the crystal-state conformation was also determined by an X-ray diffraction study. The result indicates that compound 5 adopts an L-shaped structure even in the crystalline state. The extraordinary potency of the N-arylalkylated or N-alkylated compounds 1-6, as compared with that of the unsubstituted aspartame-based sweet taste ligands, can be explained by the effect of a second hydrophobic binding domain in addition to interactions arising from the L-shaped structure. In our examination of the unexplored D zone of the Tinti-Nofre model, we discovered a sweet-potency-enhancing effect of arylalkyl substitution on dipeptide ligands, which reveals the importance of hydrophobic (aromatic)-hydrophobic (aromatic) interactions in maintaining high potency.

Conformation analysis of aspartame-based sweeteners by NMR spectroscopy, molecular dynamics simulations, and X-ray diffraction studies.

BENEDETTI, ETTORE
2006

Abstract

We report here the synthesis and the conformation analysis by 1H NMR spectroscopy and computer simulations of six potent sweet molecules, N-[3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-3-methylbutyl]-alpha-L-aspartyl-S-tert-butyl-L-cysteine 1-methylester (1; 70 000 times more potent than sucrose), N-[3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-3-methylbutyl]-alpha-L-aspartyl-beta-cyclohexyl-L-alanine 1-methylester (2; 50 000 times more potent than sucrose), N-[3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-3-methylbutyl]-alpha-L-aspartyl-4-cyan-L-phenylalanine 1-methylester (3; 2 000 times more potent than sucrose), N-[3,3-dimethylbutyl]-alpha-L-aspartyl-(1R,2S,4S)-1-methyl-2-hydroxy-4-phenylhexylamide (4; 5500 times more potent than sucrose), N-[3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)propyl]-alpha-L-aspartyl-(1R,2S,4S)-1-methyl-2-hydroxy-4-phenylhexylamide (5; 15 000 times more potent than sucrose), and N-[3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-3-methylbutyl]-alpha-L-aspartyl-(1R,2S,4S)-1-methyl-2-hydroxy-4-phenylhexylamide (6; 15 000 times more potent than sucrose). The "L-shaped" structure, which we believe to be responsible for sweet taste, is accessible to all six molecules in solution. This structure is characterized by a zwitterionic ring formed by the AH- and B-containing moieties located along the +y axis and by the hydrophobic group X pointing into the +x axis. Extended conformations with the AH- and B-containing moieties along the +y axis and the hydrophobic group X pointing into the -y axis were observed for all six sweeteners. For compound 5, the crystal-state conformation was also determined by an X-ray diffraction study. The result indicates that compound 5 adopts an L-shaped structure even in the crystalline state. The extraordinary potency of the N-arylalkylated or N-alkylated compounds 1-6, as compared with that of the unsubstituted aspartame-based sweet taste ligands, can be explained by the effect of a second hydrophobic binding domain in addition to interactions arising from the L-shaped structure. In our examination of the unexplored D zone of the Tinti-Nofre model, we discovered a sweet-potency-enhancing effect of arylalkyl substitution on dipeptide ligands, which reveals the importance of hydrophobic (aromatic)-hydrophobic (aromatic) interactions in maintaining high potency.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11588/100278
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