Programmed cell death involves complex molecular pathways in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. In Escherichia coli, the toxin–antitoxin system (TA-system) has been described as a programmed cell death pathway in which mRNA and ribosome organizations are modified, favoring the production of specific death-related proteins, but also of a minor portion of survival proteins, determining the destiny of the cell population. In the eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the ribosome was shown to change its stoichiometry in terms of ribosomal protein content during stress response, affecting the relative proportion between ohnologs, i.e., the couple of paralogs derived by a whole genome duplication event. Here, we confirm the differential expression of ribosomal proteins in yeast also during programmed cell death induced by acetic acid, and we highlight that also in this case pairs of ohnologs are involved. We also show that there are different trends in cytosolic and mitochondrial ribosomal proteins gene expression during the process. Moreover, we show that the exposure to acetic acid induces the differential expression of further genes coding for products related to translation processes and to rRNA post-transcriptional maturation, involving mRNA decapping, affecting translation accuracy, and snoRNA synthesis. Our results suggest that the reprogramming of the overall translation apparatus, including the cytosolic ribosome reorganization, are relevant events in yeast programmed cell death induced by acetic acid.
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