Intensive cultivation based on monocultures has a significant impact on ecosystem function, and sustainable agriculture must rely on alternative methods, including crop rotation. On the Canadian prairies, the use of pulse crops is a common practice, but few studies have investigated the impact on soil microorganisms. Here, we studied the effect of pea, wheat, pea-wheat rotation, and fallow in bulk soil bacterial and fungal communities. We characterized soil microbiota by high-throughput sequencing of 16S and 18S rRNA genes for bacteria and eukaryotes. Different crop rotations and fallow significantly modified soil community composition, as well as bacterial and fungal diversity. Pea alone caused a strong reduction of bacterial and fungal richness and diversity compared to wheat, pea-wheat rotation, and fallow. Notably, pea-wheat rotation increased the abundance of Fusarium graminearum compared to other management practices. The bacterial community was less responsive to crop rotation identity compared to the fungal microbiota, and we found minor differences at the phylum level, with an increase in Actinobacteria in fallow and Firmicutes in wheat. In summary, our study demonstrated that rotations alter bulk soil microbial community diversity and composition in Canadian prairies. The frequent use of pea in rotation with wheat should be carefully evaluated, balancing their ecological effects on nitrogen mineralization, water conservation, and impact on beneficial, as well as pathotrophic, fungi.

Pea-Wheat Rotation Affects Soil Microbiota Diversity, Community Structure, and Soilborne Pathogens

Woo, Sheridan Lois;De Filippis, Francesca;Zotti, Maurizio;Bonanomi, Giuliano
2022

Abstract

Intensive cultivation based on monocultures has a significant impact on ecosystem function, and sustainable agriculture must rely on alternative methods, including crop rotation. On the Canadian prairies, the use of pulse crops is a common practice, but few studies have investigated the impact on soil microorganisms. Here, we studied the effect of pea, wheat, pea-wheat rotation, and fallow in bulk soil bacterial and fungal communities. We characterized soil microbiota by high-throughput sequencing of 16S and 18S rRNA genes for bacteria and eukaryotes. Different crop rotations and fallow significantly modified soil community composition, as well as bacterial and fungal diversity. Pea alone caused a strong reduction of bacterial and fungal richness and diversity compared to wheat, pea-wheat rotation, and fallow. Notably, pea-wheat rotation increased the abundance of Fusarium graminearum compared to other management practices. The bacterial community was less responsive to crop rotation identity compared to the fungal microbiota, and we found minor differences at the phylum level, with an increase in Actinobacteria in fallow and Firmicutes in wheat. In summary, our study demonstrated that rotations alter bulk soil microbial community diversity and composition in Canadian prairies. The frequent use of pea in rotation with wheat should be carefully evaluated, balancing their ecological effects on nitrogen mineralization, water conservation, and impact on beneficial, as well as pathotrophic, fungi.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11588/889963
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